Wright Brothers: Orville and Wilbur
The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19 1871 to January 30 1948) and Wilbur (April 16 1867 to May 30 1912) were two American aviation pioneers. Orville and Wilbur Wright are generally credited with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful motor-operated airplane.
They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft with the Wright Flyer on December 17 1903, 4 miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The brothers were also the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.
The brothers gained the mechanical skills essential to their success by working for years in their Dayton, Ohio-based shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery.
Their work with bicycles, in particular, influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle such as a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice.
From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their shop employee Charles Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers.
In 1904 to 1905, the Wright brothers developed their flying machine to make longer-running and more aerodynamic flights with the Wright Flyer II, followed by the first truly practical fixed-wing aircraft, the Wright Flyer III. The brothers' breakthrough was their creation of a three-axis control system, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.
This method remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds. From the beginning of their aeronautical work, Wilbur and Orville focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving "the flying problem".
This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.
Using a small home-built wind tunnel, the Wrights also collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design more efficient wings and propellers. Their first U.S. patent did not claim invention of a flying machine, but rather a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine's surfaces.
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